drf-jwt手动签发与校验,drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页

        今日

        """
        1、drf-jwt手动签发与校验
        2、drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页 => 针对与群查接口
        """

        签发token

        源码入口
        # 前提:给一个局部禁用了所有 认证与权限 的视图类发送用户信息得到token,其实就是登录接口
        
        # 1)rest_framework_jwt.views.ObtainJSONWebToken 的 父类 JSONWebTokenAPIView 的 post 方法
        #       接受有username、password的post请求
        # 2)post方法将请求数据交给 rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer 处理
        #       完成数据的校验,会走序列化类的 全局钩子校验规则,校验得到登录用户并签发token存储在序列化对象中
        核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer的validate(self, attrs)方法
        def validate(self, attrs):
            # 账号密码字典
            credentials = {
                self.username_field: attrs.get(self.username_field),
                'password': attrs.get('password')
            }
            if all(credentials.values()):
                # 签发token第1步:用账号密码得到user对象
                user = authenticate(**credentials)
                if user:
                    if not user.is_active:
                        msg = _('User account is disabled.')
                        raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                    # 签发token第2步:通过user得到payload,payload包含着用户信息与过期时间
                    payload = jwt_payload_handler(user)
                    # 在视图类中,可以通过 序列化对象.object.get('user'或者'token') 拿到user和token 
                    return {
                        # 签发token第3步:通过payload签发出token
                        'token': jwt_encode_handler(payload),
                        'user': user
                    }
                else:
                    msg = _('Unable to log in with provided credentials.')
                    raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
            else:
                msg = _('Must include "{username_field}" and "password".')
                msg = msg.format(username_field=self.username_field)
                raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
        手动签发token逻辑
        # 1)通过username、password得到user对象
        # 2)通过user对象生成payload:jwt_payload_handler(user) => payload
        #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
        # 3)通过payload签发token:jwt_encode_handler(payload) => token
        #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler

        校验token

        源码入口
        # 前提:访问一个配置了jwt认证规则的视图类,就需要提交认证字符串token,在认证类中完成token的校验
        
        # 1)rest_framework_jwt.authentication.JSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 父类 BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 authenticate 方法
        #       请求头拿认证信息jwt-token => 通过反爬小规则确定有用的token => payload => user
        核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.authentication.BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication的authenticate(self, request)方法
        def authenticate(self, request):
            """
            Returns a two-tuple of `User` and token if a valid signature has been
            supplied using JWT-based authentication.  Otherwise returns `None`.
            """
            # 带有反爬小规则的获取token:前台必须按 "jwt token字符串" 方式提交
            # 校验user第1步:从请求头 HTTP_AUTHORIZATION 中拿token,并提取
            jwt_value = self.get_jwt_value(request)
            # 游客
            if jwt_value is None:
                return None
            # 校验
            try:
                # 校验user第2步:token => payload
                payload = jwt_decode_handler(jwt_value)
            except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                msg = _('Signature has expired.')
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
            except jwt.DecodeError:
                msg = _('Error decoding signature.')
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
            except jwt.InvalidTokenError:
                raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed()
            # 校验user第3步:token => payload
            user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
        
            return (user, jwt_value)
        手动校验token逻辑
        # 1)从请求头中获取token
        # 2)根据token解析出payload:jwt_decode_handler(token) => payloay
        #       from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
        # 3)根据payload解析出user:self.authenticate_credentials(payload) => user
        #       继承drf-jwt的BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication,拿到父级的authenticate_credentials方法

        案例:实现多方式登陆签发token

        models.py
        from django.db import models
        
        from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser
        class User(AbstractUser):
            mobile = models.CharField(max_length=11, unique=True)
        
            class Meta:
                db_table = 'api_user'
                verbose_name = '用户表'
                verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
        
            def __str__(self):
                return self.username
        serializers.py
        from rest_framework import serializers
        from . import models
        import re
        
        # 拿到前台token的两个函数: user => payload => token
        # from rest_framework_jwt.settings import api_settings
        # jwt_payload_handler = api_settings.JWT_PAYLOAD_HANDLER
        # jwt_encode_handler = api_settings.JWT_ENCODE_HANDLER
        from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
        from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
        
        
        # 1) 前台提交多种登录信息都采用一个key,所以后台可以自定义反序列化字段进行对应
        # 2) 序列化类要处理序列化与反序列化,要在fields中设置model绑定的Model类所有使用到的字段
        # 3) 区分序列化字段与反序列化字段 read_only | write_only
        # 4) 在自定义校验规则中(局部钩子、全局钩子)校验数据是否合法、确定登录的用户、根据用户签发token
        # 5) 将登录的用户与签发的token保存在序列化类对象中
        class UserModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
            # 自定义反序列字段:一定要设置write_only,只参与反序列化,不会与model类字段映射
            usr = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
            pwd = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
            class Meta:
                model = models.User
                fields = ['usr', 'pwd', 'username', 'mobile', 'email']
                # 系统校验规则
                extra_kwargs = {
                    'username': {
                        'read_only': True
                    },
                    'mobile': {
                        'read_only': True
                    },
                    'email': {
                        'read_only': True
                    },
                }
        
            def validate(self, attrs):
                usr = attrs.get('usr')
                pwd = attrs.get('pwd')
        
                # 多方式登录:各分支处理得到该方式下对应的用户
                if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
                elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
                else:
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
                user_obj = user_query.first()
        
                # 签发:得到登录用户,签发token并存储在实例化对象中
                if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                    # 签发token,将token存放到 实例化类对象的token 名字中
                    payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                    token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                    # 将当前用户与签发的token都保存在序列化对象中
                    self.user = user_obj
                    self.token = token
                    return attrs
        
                raise serializers.ValidationError({'data': '数据有误'})
        views.py
        #实现多方式登陆签发token:账号、手机号、邮箱等登陆
        # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
        # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类
        # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
        # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
        import re
        from . import serializers, models
        from utils.response import APIResponse
        
        from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
        from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
        
        class LoginAPIView(APIView):
            # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
            authentication_classes = []
            permission_classes = []
            def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类,规则:账号用usr传,密码用pwd传
                user_ser = serializers.UserModelSerializer(data=request.data)
                # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
                user_ser.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
                # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
                return APIResponse(token=user_ser.token, results=serializers.UserModelSerializer(user_ser.user).data)
        
            # "一根筋" 思考方式:所有逻辑都在视图类中处理
            def my_post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                usr = request.data.get('usr')
                pwd = request.data.get('pwd')
                if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
                elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
                else:
                    user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
                user_obj = user_query.first()
                if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                    payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                    token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                    return APIResponse(results={'username': user_obj.username}, token=token)
                return APIResponse(data_msg='不可控错误')

        案例:自定义认证反爬规则的认证类

        authentications.py
        import jwt
        from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication
        from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
        from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
        class JWTAuthentication(BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication):
            def authenticate(self, request):
                jwt_token = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')
        
                # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt
                token = self.parse_jwt_token(jwt_token)
        
                if token is None:
                    return None
        
                try:
                    # token => payload
                    payload = jwt_decode_handler(token)
                except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                    raise AuthenticationFailed('token已过期')
                except:
                    raise AuthenticationFailed('非法用户')
                # payload => user
                user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
        
                return (user, token)
        
            # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt,auth为前盐,jwt为后盐
            def parse_jwt_token(self, jwt_token):
                tokens = jwt_token.split()
                if len(tokens) != 3 or tokens[0].lower() != 'auth' or tokens[2].lower() != 'jwt':
                    return None
                return tokens[1]
        views.py
        from rest_framework.views import APIView
        from utils.response import APIResponse
        # 必须登录后才能访问 - 通过了认证权限组件
        from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated
        # 自定义jwt校验规则
        from .authentications import JWTAuthentication
        class UserDetail(APIView):
            authentication_classes = [JWTAuthentication]
            permission_classes = [IsAuthenticated]
            def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
                return APIResponse(results={'username': request.user.username})

        admin使用自定义User表:新增用户密码密文

        from django.contrib import admin
        from . import models
        
        # 自定义User表,admin后台管理,采用密文密码
        from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
        
        class MyUserAdmin(UserAdmin):
            add_fieldsets = (
                (None, {
                    'classes': ('wide',),
                    'fields': ('username', 'password1', 'password2', 'mobile', 'email'),
                }),
            )
        
        admin.site.register(models.User, MyUserAdmin)

        群查接口各种筛选组件数据准备

        models.py
        class Car(models.Model):
            name = models.CharField(max_length=16, unique=True, verbose_name='车名')
            price = models.DecimalField(max_digits=10, decimal_places=2, verbose_name='价格')
            brand = models.CharField(max_length=16, verbose_name='品牌')
        
            class Meta:
                db_table = 'api_car'
                verbose_name = '汽车表'
                verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
        
            def __str__(self):
                return self.name
        admin.py
        admin.site.register(models.Car)
        serializers.py
        class CarModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
            class Meta:
                model = models.Car
                fields = ['name', 'price', 'brand']
        views.py
        # Car的群查接口
        from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
        
        class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
            queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
            serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
        urls.py
        url(r'^cars/$', views.CarListAPIView.as_view()),

        drf搜索过滤组件

        views.py
        from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
        
        # 第一步:drf的SearchFilter - 搜索过滤
        from rest_framework.filters import SearchFilter
        
        class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
            queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
            serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
        
            # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
            filter_backends = [SearchFilter]
        
            # 第三步:SearchFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?search=...
            search_fields = ['name', 'price']
            # eg:/cars/?search=1,name和price中包含1的数据都会被查询出

        drf排序过滤组件

        views.py
        from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
        
        # 第一步:drf的OrderingFilter - 排序过滤
        from rest_framework.filters import OrderingFilter
        
        class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
            queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
            serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
        
            # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
            filter_backends = [OrderingFilter]
        
            # 第三步:OrderingFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?ordering=...
            ordering_fields = ['pk', 'price']
            # eg:/cars/?ordering=-price,pk,先按price降序,如果出现price相同,再按pk升序

        drf基础分页组件

        pahenations.py
        from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination
        
        class MyPageNumberPagination(PageNumberPagination):
            # ?page=页码
            page_query_param = 'page'
            # ?page=页面 下默认一页显示的条数
            page_size = 3
            # ?page=页面&page_size=条数 用户自定义一页显示的条数
            page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
            # 用户自定义一页显示的条数最大限制:数值超过5也只显示5条
            max_page_size = 5
        views.py
        from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
        
        class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
            # 如果queryset没有过滤条件,就必须 .all(),不然分页会出问题
            queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
            serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
            
            # 分页组件 - 给视图类配置分页类即可 - 分页类需要自定义,继承drf提供的分页类即可
            pagination_class = pagenations.MyPageNumberPagination
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